We must first calculate the theoretical critical buckling load of the column.
F = maximum or critical force (vertical load on column),
E = modulus of elasticity,
I = area moment of inertia,
L = unsupported length of column,
K = column effective length factor, whose value depends on the conditions of end support of the column, as follows.
For both ends pinned (hinged, free to rotate), K = 1.0.
For both ends fixed, K = 0.50.
For one end fixed and the other end pinned, K = 0.699....
For one end fixed and the other end free to move laterally, K = 2.0.
KL is the effective length of the column.
For a circular cross section,
Therefore, for our problem, I = 0.003068
Therefore, our critical buckling load is = 1.51398E+7 N
Please look at the video located in the geometry section for the start-up step of this tutorial.