# Summary — Lesson 4

Harmonic response analysis is a common dynamic analysis. In this course, we discussed how to perform the analysis as well as how to interpret the results. Let’s summarize the key points from each lesson.

How to perform a harmonic analysis using the Mode Superposition Method:

• Harmonic analysis is linear so nonlinearities are ignored.
• The mode superposition method is an efficient method for solving harmonic analysis.
• The excitation and the response have the same frequency, but there may be a lag between them.
• Damping is present in most mechanical systems, so it should be specified to achieve more accurate results and avoid an unrealistically high response at resonance.

How to utilize the residual vector method:

• Residual vectors can be utilized to achieve accurate results with fewer modes.
• The effect is most evident in cases where the structure has localized deformations.
• The method can be utilized in structures that are meshed with element types of solid, beam, and shell.

How to interpret harmonic results correctly:

• The response is steady-state sinusoidal, and we can calculate the amplitude and phase angle of the response.
• It is typical to check the frequency response plots first to find the frequency and phase angle at the peak response(s).
• The contour plots of interest at the peak response(s) can then be investigated.
• The spatial resolution setting of “average” will not report the maximum response depending on the scoping, so care should be taken to set this appropriately.
• It is often necessary to extract multiple results to gain a complete understanding of the harmonic response of the structure.