# Homework, Quizzes, Simulation Examples - Linear Elastic Materials — Lesson 5

## Simulation Examples

Several simulation examples are provided here. Each of them comes with a description file, video instruction, and Ansys simulation file. All of the simulations are conducted using Ansys software. Download the student version of Ansys software here.

#### (1) Stress Analysis of a Signpost

This simulation relates the application of stress analysis of a linear elastic material to an everyday engineering problem. It is a simply supported model of a signpost that simulates a combined loading situation. The simulation analyzes the normal stresses as well as the stress concentrations in sharp corners, and these stress values can serve as important indicators in a design. Download the zip file and extract the contents. Go through the Readme file. Follow along with the provided How To Video file.

#### (2) Linear Analysis of a Bike Frame

A bike frame is a simple structure that can have multiple load distribution possibilities. The weight is distributed to the front and rear wheels via the seat, pedals and handlebar. One can perform a linear analysis to see the deformation and stress pattern in the frame under different load distribution scenarios. Explore this simulation and characterize the material behavior of the bike frame under these loading conditions. Does the material deform elastically? Does the material show anisotropy?  Download the zip file and extract the contents. Go through the Readme file. Follow along with the provided How To Video file.

#### (3) Composite Coupon with Failure

A composite material is made of two or more constituent materials and combines the physical properties of the individual materials. The combination usually results in lightweight, high-strength components that have broad applications in engineering fields. This simulation example involves a carbon fiber epoxy laminate coupon being stretched until failure. Follow the instruction files and try to understand the characteristics of a composite laminate.  Download the zip file and extract the contents. Go through the Readme file. Follow along with the provided How To Video file.

#### (4) Microstructure of Materials

A material’s properties are heavily influenced by its microstructure. This example presents four different types of microstructures and their corresponding macro-scale material properties: random uniaxial fiber structure, body-centered particle cubic structure, diamond lattice structure, and woven structure.  Follow the instructions to replicate the simulation and answer the following questions.

(a) For an orthotropic material like wood, how many independent material constants are there? (This is important because one needs corresponding experiments to characterize the material properties.)

(b) Follow the same procedure and try another representative volume element (RVE) type --- chopped fiber. What is your prediction of the macro-scale material property? Is it isotropic or orthotropic? Compare your prediction with the simulation result.

Note: This example has tasks to be done on Material Designer and cannot be completed on the Student version. This example requires an Academic/Commercial license.

## Homework

#### (1) A Four-Point Bending Test on a T Beam

This model simulates the 4-point bending test on a T beam. It showcases how boundary conditions can change the results. The precise description of the boundary conditions can have significant effects on the predicted stresses. Conduct the simulation and do the following exercises:

(a) Change the material property to orthotropic elasticity, with Young's modulus in the y-direction and z-direction 1/10 of the x-direction. Let the material’s x-direction align with the longitudinal direction of the beam. Run the simulation and evaluate the result. How different is the stress distribution compared to the example? Why?

(b) Keep the orthotropic material in step (a) but make the material’s y-direction align with the longitudinal direction of the beam. Run the simulation. Compare the result with step (a) and try to understand the importance of material direction.